Halliburton offers engineered casing solutions to help operators run and land casing to depth and achieve long-term zonal isolation. Halliburton is the only oilfield services provider to offer both cementing services and casing equipment globally.
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This integrated approach allows operators to gain efficiency and reduce operating costs. Halliburton casing equipment is designed and manufactured to meet specific requirements necessary for a successful job, including relieving rig strain, enabling complete cement placement, and holding the slurry in place after pumping. These centralizers are carbon-fiber ceramic-composite blades bonded directly to operators' casing with adhesion so strong these blades are truly integral to the pipe.
Advantageously, the application process is mobile and can be conducted at the operators' pipe yard or at a designated Halliburton facility. Blades are designed with low-angle upsets to help lift pipe away from obstructions, reducing friction by 40 percent over conventional centralizers.Extreme Reactors Tutorial: How to Build the Best Reactor Setup - Modded Minecraft
The blades are staggered and offset to allow an optimized flow path through the bypass area. Halliburton provides quality equipment and economical methods of solving complex oilfield problems. Halliburton engineers coordinate design requirements - from customer specifications through the manufacturing process - to deliver fit-for-purpose products that meet all levels of product certification for use on critical land and offshore well installations.
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Contact Us. Overview More Overview Case Studies. Casing Equipment Halliburton offers engineered casing solutions to help operators run and land casing to depth and achieve long-term zonal isolation. Casing Equipment Choose Area.
They are looking for reliability, innovation, and operational integrity. In addition to the standard packer shoe line offered by Halliburton, premium threads are available for specific customer applications. The Super SealII float valve has been used in cementing operations in every partof the globe where reliability and dependability are required.
With Halliburton's SuperFill surge reduction equipment, a reliable auto-fill system, running speeds can be optimized while protecting the formation. Bow-spring and rigid versions can be supplied in almost any casing size, grade, or thread and for use in the most challenging wellbore configurations. This tool is operated manually and requires the use of a drill or tubing string and the sleeve positioner operating tools.The net capacity factor is the unitless ratio of an actual electrical energy output over a given period of time to the maximum possible electrical energy output over that period.
The average capacity factor can also be defined for any class of such installations, and can be used to compare different types of electricity production.
The maximum possible energy output of a given installation assumes its continuous operation at full nameplate capacity over the relevant period. The actual energy output during that period and the capacity factor vary greatly depending on a range of factors.
The capacity factor can never exceed the availability factoror uptime during the period. Uptime can be reduced due to, for example, reliability issues and maintenance, scheduled or unscheduled. Other factors include the design of the installation, its location, the type of electricity production and with it either the fuel being used or, for renewable energy, the local weather conditions. Additionally, the capacity factor can be subject to regulatory constraints and market forcespotentially affecting both its fuel purchase and its electricity sale.
The capacity factor is often computed over a timescale of a year, averaging out most temporal fluctuations. However, it can be also computed for a month to gain insight into seasonal fluctuations. Alternatively, it be computed over the lifetime of the power source, both while operational and after decommissioning.
Nuclear power plants are at the high end of the range of capacity factors, ideally reduced only by the availability factori. Ina refueling was completed in a record 28 days,  compared to the 35 days of downtime that the capacity factor corresponds to.
The Danish offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 has a nameplate capacity of Hoover Dam has a nameplate capacity of MW  and an annual generation averaging 4.
Taking the average figure for annual generation gives a capacity factor of:. At the low range of capacity factors is the photovoltaic power stationwhich supplies power to the electricity grid from a large-scale photovoltaic system PV system. An inherent limit to its capacity factor comes from its requirement of daylightpreferably with a sun unobstructed by clouds, smoke or smogshade from trees and building structures.
Since the amount of sunlight varies both with the time of the day and the seasons of the year, the capacity factor is typically computed on an annual basis. The amount of available sunlight is mostly determined by the latitude of the installation and the local cloud cover. The actual production is also influenced by local factors such as dust and ambient temperature, which ideally should be low. As for any power station, the maximum possible power production is the nameplate capacity times the number of hours in a year, while the actual production is the amount of electricity delivered annually to the grid.
Its capacity factor is thus:. A significantly lower capacity factor is achieved by Lauingen Energy Park located in Bavarianear the 49th parallel.Wondering what size capsule you need to purchase for encapsulating your supplement dosage? We are frequently asked this question and have put together this sizing chart for your convenience.
After all, no one wants to buy the wrong size capsules and have to return them. So which empty capsules do you need to buy, size 0, sizesize 1? Check out our helpful size chart to find out. Visit the Empty Capsule Guide. Still have questions?
Visit the Empty Capsules Guide. Free U. View cart. Capsule Weight - The total weight of the capsule, measured in milligrams mg.
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Weight Capacity by Formulation - The total weight capacity of the capsule measured in milligrams mg depending on the density of your formulation. Overall Closed Length - The total length of the capsule when it is fully closed and locked. The Body is the longer part of the capsule that is filled with your material. The Cap is shorter than the body and is placed over the body to form a complete capsule. External Diameter - The total diameter of both the body and the cap. Follow us Find us on Facebook Find us on Twitter.
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Empty Capsule Individual Lengths Cap. Empty Capsule Individual Lengths Body. Empty Capsule External Diameter. Empty Capsule Quantity Per Case.A casing and bit size program must consider the problems described in the previous section in addition to the actual casing and bit size characteristics. These characteristics include the following items:. A working knowledge of the relationship of these variables is important for the selection of a viable geometry program.
Pipe Selection. Casing availability is a priority consideration in hole geometry selection. High-strength casing often required for deep wells may have a small inner drift diameter that will influence subsequent casing and bit size selection. Unfortunately, supply and demand cycles in the pipe industry may control the pipe design rather than engineering considerations. The outer diameter OD of the casing is available in numerous sizes. The drift diameter, which is smaller than the inner diameter IDcontrols the bit selection for the open hole below the casing.
The drift diameter is described in further detail in Chapter As heavier-weight pipe is required to meet certain design specifications, the available drift diameter is reduced. A rule-of-tbumb that has proven satisfactory in most field cases is to allow I in, of wall thickness to achieve a suitable design without resorting to the use of ultra-high-strength pipe V-I50,SI40, etc. Hole geometry selection with the bottom-to-top approach may dictate the drift diameter of the casing as the controlling criteria.
The options for this design logic are as follows:. The fourth option is occasionally required in hydrogen sulfide environments where low-strength metals must be used.
Coupling Selection. Pipe couplings are generally designed to satisfy requirements such as burst, collapse, tension, and sealing effectiveness.
However, coupling diameters may be a design guideline in some wells. Table shows the outer diameter of various types of couplings and pipe sizes. API couplings are normally 1 in. Significant advantages are often provided by using premium couplings. These couplings usually have clearances less than comparable API connections and.
In many cases, more expensive premium couplings can clearly reduce the total well cost by allowing smaller pipe and hole geometries. In Fig. Bit Size Selection. Sizing the bit program is dependent on the required casing sizes.
Bits are available in almost any desired size range.
Table illustrates size availability for Hughes insert tooth bits. In addition, bit selection is restricted for sizes greater than 12Vi in. To use the chart, determine the casing or liner size for the last size of pipe to be run.Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. Casing and tubing strings are the main parts of the well construction.
All wells drilled for the purpose of oil or gas production or injecting materials into underground formations must be cased with material with sufficient strength and functionality. The cost of casing is a major part of the overall well cost, so selection of casing size, grade, connectors, and setting depth is a primary engineering and economic consideration.
Conductor casing is the first string set below the structural casing i. The conductor isolates unconsolidated formations and water sands and protects against shallow gas. This is usually the string onto which the casing head is installed. A diverter or a blowout prevention BOP stack may be installed onto this string. When cementedthis string is typically cemented to the surface or to the mudline in offshore wells. Surface casing is set to provide blowout protection, isolate water sands, and prevent lost circulation.
It also often provides adequate shoe strength to drill into high-pressure transition zones. In deviated wells, the surface casing may cover the build section to prevent keyseating of the formation during deeper drilling.
This string is typically cemented to the surface or to the mudline in offshore wells. It is often set in the transition zone from normal to abnormal pressure.
The casing cement top must isolate any hydrocarbon zones. Some wells require multiple intermediate strings. Some intermediate strings may also be production strings if a liner is run beneath them. Production casing is used to isolate production zones and contain formation pressures in the event of a tubing leak.
It may also be exposed to:. Liner is a casing string that does not extend back to the wellhead, but is hung from another casing string. Liners are used instead of full casing strings to:. Liners can be either an intermediate or a production string. Liners are typically cemented over their entire length.
Liner tieback string is a casing string that provides additional pressure integrity from the liner top to the wellhead. An intermediate tieback is used to isolate a casing string that cannot withstand possible pressure loads if drilling is continued usually because of excessive wear or higher than anticipated pressures. Similarly, a production tieback isolates an intermediate string from production loads.
Tiebacks can be uncemented or partially cemented. An example of a typical casing program that illustrates each of the specified casing string types is shown in Fig. Tubing is the conduit through which oil and gas are brought from the producing formations to the field surface facilities for processing.
Tubing must be adequately strong to resist loads and deformations associated with production and workovers. Further, tubing must be sized to support the expected rates of production of oil and gas. Clearly, tubing that is too small restricts production and subsequent economic performance of the well. Tubing that is too large, however, may have an economic impact beyond the cost of the tubing string itself, because the tubing size will influence the overall casing design of the well.
The American Petroleum Inst. Casing is classified according to five properties:. Almost without exception, casing is manufactured of mild 0.
Strength can also be increased with quenching and tempering. API has adopted a casing "grade" designation to define the strength of casing steels.Enpro offers a complete range of API 5CT casing and tubing for all types of oil exploration and production demands. The material includes carbon steel for the most common usealloy, chrome and high alloy steels. Tubing Pipe dimensions range: 1. The shape of the casing section is round, in large diameter pipes and is inserted into the oil well, fixed with cement to protect other equipment that is mostly made of iron and steel.
The oil well must be designed to withstand the force different from the external power, such as crushing, explosion, stress and chemical corruption. API 5CT casing pipe is used to support the oil and gas pipe wall, and to ensure the drilling process and the post-completion wells normal operation. Each well depending on the depth of drilling and geological conditions, to use several layers of casing. After cementing casing to be used to go down, it different from tubing, drill pipe and can not be reused, a one-time consumable materials.
According by usage can be divided into the sleeve pipe, surface casing, casing and production casing. OCTG Tubing pipe goes inside the casing pipe because it is the pipe through which oil makes its way out.
Tubing is the simplest part of OCTG and it is normally found in the segment of 30 ft 9 mwith threaded connection at both ends. The pipe is either used to transport natural gas or crude oil from the producing formation to the facilities where it will be processed after drilling is complete. Tubing pumping pipe goes inside the casing because it is the pipe through which oil makes its way out. Pipe of production is the simple part of OCTG and it is normally found in the segment of 30 ft 9 mwith threaded connection at both ends.
As we know, the coupling of steel pipes is a pipe or short pipe with threads on both ends and is used to connect pipes. The API coupling plays an important role in the connection of pipes and casings, since it requires more rigorous manufacturing processes than normal steel couplings. The recommended standard is API 5B. Sourcing from all the good API 5CT casing pipe manufacturers in China, Enpro is working on providing high quality casing pipe with most competitive price.
Moreover, Enpro is engaged in providing various premium connection casing pipe, for the server working conditions. Casing Pipe The shape of the casing section is round, in large diameter pipes and is inserted into the oil well, fixed with cement to protect other equipment that is mostly made of iron and steel. Casing and Tubing coupling As we know, the coupling of steel pipes is a pipe or short pipe with threads on both ends and is used to connect pipes.
Our advantages Sourcing from all the good API 5CT casing pipe manufacturers in China, Enpro is working on providing high quality casing pipe with most competitive price. Request for Casing and Tubing Price Now! Related Piping Material:.
API 5L Pipe. Drill Pipe. Sucker Rods.Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. The most important mechanical properties of casing and tubing are burst strength, collapse resistance and tensile strength.
These properties are necessary to determine the strength of the pipe and to design a casing string. If casing is subjected to internal pressure higher than external, it is said that casing is exposed to burst pressure loading. Burst pressure loading conditions occur during well control operations, casing pressure integrity tests, pumping operations, and production operations. This equation, commonly known as the Barlow equation, calculates the internal pressure at which the tangential or hoop stress at the inner wall of the pipe reaches the yield strength YS of the material.
The factor of 0. So using a yield strength criterion as a measure of pipe internal pressure resistance is inherently conservative. The effect of axial loading on the internal pressure resistance is discussed later. If external pressure exceeds internal pressure, the casing is subjected to collapse. Such conditions may exist during cementing operations, trapped fluid expansion, or well evacuation. The collapse strength criteria, given in API Bull. This criterion does not represent a "collapse" pressure at all.
Plastic collapse is based on empirical data from 2, tests of K, N, and P seamless casing. No analytic expression has been derived that accurately models collapse behavior in this regime. The minimum collapse pressure for the plastic range of collapse is calculated by Eq. Transition collapse is obtained by a numerical curve fit between the plastic and elastic regimes. The minimum collapse pressure for the plastic-to-elastic transition zone, P Tis calculated with Eq.
Most oilfield tubulars experience collapse in the "plastic" and "transition" regimes. Many manufacturers market "high collapse" casing, which they claim has collapse performance properties that exceed the ratings calculated with the formulae in API Bull. High collapse casing was initially developed for use in the deeper sections of high-pressure wells.
The use of high collapse casing has gained wide acceptance in the industry, but its use remains controversial among some operators. If the pipe is subjected to both external and internal pressures, the equivalent external pressure is calculated as. To provide a more intuitive understanding of the sense of this relationship, Eq. In Eq. The "equivalent" pressure applied to the external diameter is the difference of these two terms.
The axial strength of the pipe body is determined by the pipe body yield strength formula found in API Bull. Axial strength is the product of the cross-sectional area based on nominal dimensions and the yield strength. All the pipe-strength equations previously given are based on a uniaxial stress state i. This idealized situation never occurs in oilfield applications because pipe in a wellbore is always subjected to combined loading conditions. The fundamental basis of casing design is that if stresses in the pipe wall exceed the yield strength of the material, a failure condition exists.
Hence, the yield strength is a measure of the maximum allowable stress. To evaluate the pipe strength under combined loading conditions, the uniaxial yield strength is compared to the yielding condition. Perhaps the most widely accepted yielding criterion is based on the maximum distortion energy theory, which is known as the Huber-Hencky-Mises yield condition or simply the von Mises stress, triaxal stress, or equivalent stress. It is a theoretical value that allows a generalized three-dimensional 3D stress state to be compared with a uniaxial failure criterion the yield strength.